Where Were The Vikings From – The Viking expansion was a historical movement that saw Norse explorers, traders, and warriors, known in modern scholarship as the Vikings, travel across much of the North Atlantic, reaching as far south as North Africa and east as far as Russia and the Mediterranean Sea. to Constantinople and the Middle East, working as robbers, traders, colonists and mercenaries. In the west, Vikings led by Leif Ericson, heir to Eric the Red, reached North America and established a short-lived settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows, in Newfoundland, Canada. Long-lasting and more established Norse colonies were formed in Greenland, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Russia, Ukraine, Great Britain, Ireland and Normandy.
Researchers have suggested that the Vikings may have originally started sailing and raiding because of their need to find women in foreign lands.
Where Were The Vikings From
This concept was expressed in the 11th Curie by the historian Dudo of Saint-Quentin in his semi-fictional History of the Normans.
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Wealthy and powerful Vikings had many wives and concubines, and these polygamous relationships may have created a shortage of suitable women for the average Viking man. Because of this, the average Viking man may be forced to take dangerous actions to gain wealth and power in order to be able to find the right woman.
Polygamy increases male-male competition in society because it creates a pool of unmarried children who are willing to engage in risky status-enhancing and sex-seeking behaviors.
The Annals of Ulster says that in 821 the Vikings plundered an Irish village and “carried off a great number of women captive”.
Another theory is that it was a quest for revenge against continental Europeans for past raids against the Vikings and related groups.
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Charlemagne’s campaign to force Saxon pagans to convert to Christianity, particularly by killing anyone who refused to be baptized.
Those who favor this explanation point out that the introduction of Christianity into Scandinavia led to serious conflict and almost divided Norway into parts.
However, the first target of the Viking raids was not the Frankish Empire but the Christian monasteries in Gland. According to historian Peter Sawyer, they were raided because they were wealthy and not because of any religious reason on their farms.
Depicts Vikings kidnapping a woman. Viking M often kidnapped foreign women for marriage or as concubines that they plundered. Illustrated by Frch painter Évariste Vital Luminais in the 19th ctury.
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A different idea is that the Viking population outgrew the agricultural capacity of their homeland. This may have been true of western Norway, where there were few reserves of land, but it is unlikely that drought occurred in the rest of Scandinavia.
Alternatively, some scholars propose that the Viking expansion was influenced by the growth of youth: because the eldest son of a family traditionally inherited the family’s tier estates, the younger sons had to find their fortunes by emigration or raiding. Peter Sawyer suggests that most Vikings migrated because of the attraction to land rather than the need to own it.
However, this period has not clearly seen population growth, youth growth or decline in agricultural production. Nor is it clear why such pressures would have led to expansion abroad rather than into vast, uncultivated forest areas in the interior of the Scandinavian Peninsula, although perhaps migration or sea raids would have been easier or more profitable for farms than large-scale forest clearing. and pastures in regions with limited growing seasons.
It is also possible that the declining profitability of the old trade routes led the Vikings to seek new, more profitable routes. Trade between Western Europe and the rest of Eurasia may have suffered after the Roman Empire lost its western territories in the 5th century, and the expansion of Islam in the 7th century may have reduced trade opportunities in Western Europe by redirecting resources along the Silk Road.
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Viking expansion opened new trade routes between Arab and Frankish lands, and the Franks regained control of trade markets previously dominated by the Frisians after the destruction of the Frisian fleet.
Viking settlements in Ireland and Great Britain are thought to have been predominantly male-dominated; However, some graves show an almost equal male/female distribution. The disagreement is partly due to the method of classification; While earlier archeology often inferred biological sex from buried artifacts, modern archeology can use osteology to determine biological sex and isotopic analysis to trace origins (DNA sampling is often not possible).
Males buried in cemeteries on the Isle of Man at that time had predominantly Norse names, while female names were of indigenous origin. Old texts on the founding of Iceland mention Irish and British women, indicating that there were women from the British Isles accompanying the Viking explorers who either came voluntarily or were taken with them by force. Getic studies of populations in the Western Isles and the Isle of Skye also show that Viking settlements were established primarily by male Vikings who mated with females from the local population.
However, not all Viking colonies were predominantly male. Getic studies of the population of Shetland suggest that among those who migrated to the area were family units consisting of Viking women as well as M.
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This may be because areas such as the Shetland Islands, being closer to Scandinavia, were more suitable targets for family migration, while the northern and western frontier settlements were more suitable for unattached male settlement groups.
See also: Viking Age in North-West Europe, Viking activity in the British Isles, and Viking raids and invasions of the British Isles
The Territories of King Canute 1014-1035. (Note that the Norwegian lands of Gemtland, Harjedal, Idre and Serna are not included in this map).
During the reign of Beortric, King of Wessex (786-802), three ships of the “Northam” landed at Portland Bay in Dorset.
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The local reeve mistook the Vikings for traders and directed them to a nearby royal estate, but the visitors rejected him and his m. On 8 June 793, “the ravages of Heath M profaned the church of God at Lindisfarne with plunder and slaughter”.
According to the 12th-century Anglo-Norman chronicler Simon of Durham, the raiders killed the resident monks or drowned them at sea or carried them off as slaves – along with some of the church’s treasures.
In 875, after eight decades of repeated Viking raids, the monks fled to Lindisfarne with the relics of St. Cuthbert.
The Vikings met more resistance than they expected: their leaders were killed. The raiders escaped, only to have their ships beached at Tynemouth and the crew killed by the locals.
Map Of The
This represents one of the last raids on the gland for about 40 years. The Vikings instead focused on Ireland and Scotland.
In 865, a hitherto disjointed band of mainly Danish Vikings joined a larger army and descended on East Anglia.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle describes this force as Mycel hæþ (Great Heath Army) and states that it was led by Ivar the Boneless and Halfdan Ragnarsson.
In 871, the Great Heath Army was reinforced by another Danish army known as the Great Summer Army under Guthrum. In 875, the Great Heath Army split into two divisions, with Guthrum leading one towards Wessex and Halfdon leading his followers north.
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In 876, Halfdon shared the Northumbrian lands south of the Tees among his m, who “ploughed the land and supported themselves”, establishing the region later known as Dunlaw.
Most of the Glacial kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings, but King Alfred of Wessex defeated Guthrum’s army at the Battle of Eddington in 878. The Treaty of Wedmore was signed in the same year.
These treaties formalized the boundaries of the Glish kingdoms and Viking Danlaw territory, with provisions for peaceful relations between the Glish and the Vikings. Despite these agreements, the conflict continued. However, Alfred and his successors retook the Viking frontier and retook York.
The Viking Princes continued during the reign of the Danish prince Cnut the Great (reigned as King of Gland: 1016–1035), after which a series of succession disputes weakened the hold of Cnut’s heirs on power.
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When King Edward the Confessor died in 1066, the Norwegian King Harald Hardrada challenged his successor as King of Gland, Harold Godwinson. On 25 September 1066, Hardrada was killed at the Battle of Stamford Bridge and his Norwegian army was defeated by Harold Godwinson.
Harold Godwinson himself died when the Norman William the Conqueror defeated the Glish army at the Battle of Hastings in October 1066. William was crowned King of Granthi on 25 December 1066; However, it was many years before he was able to bring the kingdom under his complete control.
In 1070, the Danish king Sven Estridson rode up the Humber with an army in support of Edgar the Aetheling, the last surviving male member of the Glish royal family. However, after the capture of York, Swayne accepted money from William to desert Edgar.
Five years later one of Sven’s sons set off for Gland to support another glittering rebellion.
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